When Was the Legal Mandate for Education during Japanese Period

After the incident, education authorities and schools tried to make educational institutions safer. Although Japanese schools were considered fairly safe before the June 2001 killings, schools began monitoring school attendance, installing surveillance cameras, and teaching teachers and staff emergency procedures. The town of Toyonaka, near Ikeda Elementary School, has sent a security guard to all elementary schools in the city. Guards guard the school gates and patrol schools from 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Schools close their doors and screen visitors before they are allowed to enter the school grounds (RO 7 June 2003). At the end of 2003, 45 per cent of schools had a security system such as surveillance cameras, 33 per cent had provided students with horns to prevent crime, and 8 per cent had security personnel (AS 15 January 2005). 14. In February 2005, a 17-year-old boy entered his former primary school and killed a teacher and wounded another teacher and a nutritionist with a knife. In response to this incident, the Tokyo Ko-to District Department of Education conducted regular police patrols in all kindergartens, elementary and middle schools in the district (AS 17 February 2005). ~ The government responded with the University Control Act in 1969 and with continuing education reforms in the early 1970s. New laws regulate the establishment of new universities and the remuneration of teachers, and public school curricula are revised.

Private educational institutions received public support and a nationally standardized university entrance exam was added for national universities. Also during this period, strong differences of opinion developed between the government and teachers` groups. Flexibility, creativity, internationalization (kokusaika), individuality and diversity thus became the buzzwords of the important education reform movement in Japan in the 1980s, although they took up topics that had already been heard, especially in the 1970s. The proposals and possible changes of the 1980s were so important that some compared them to the educational changes that took place when Japan opened up to the West in the nineteenth century, and to those of the occupation. The National Commission for Education Reform (Kyo-iku kaikaku kokumin kaigi), mandated by Prime Minister Keizo-Obuchi, submitted its final report in December 2000. The report stresses the need for further deregulation, diversity and individuality. It emphasized homeschooling, moral education, voluntary activities, higher education and cooperation between the community and parents. It proposed grouping primary and secondary students according to learning level, using completion tests in secondary schools, promoting six-year secondary schools, promoting volunteerism, establishing an evaluation system for teachers and revising the Basic Law on Education (Kyo-iku Kaikaku 2000).

CEE developed the Education Reform Plan for the 21st Century (also known as the Rainbow Plan) based on the final report of the National Commission for Education Reform. [Source: Miki Y. Ishikida, Japanese Education in the 21st Century, usjp.org/jpeducation_en/jp; iUniverse, June 2005 ~] Education in the Empire of Japan was a high priority for the government, as the leaders of the first Meiji government recognized the need for universal public education in their quest to modernize Japan. Education in the Philippines has gone through several stages of development from pre-Hispanic times to the present day. In meeting the needs of society, education serves as a focal point of leadership/priorities at specific times/epochs of our national struggle as a race. For more than a decade, the teacher recruitment process has been deregulated, allowing prefectural education authorities to hire specialized instructors who do not have a teaching certificate. New teachers are expected to bring new ideas and perspectives to the school`s culture. In 1993, the CEE introduced the team education system in order to pay more attention to the needs of each student and to reduce the heavy workload of teachers. Since 1995, school counselors have also been used in schools to deal with increasing school-related issues such as bullying and school refusal syndrome. ~ The Meiji government (1868-1912) established a bilateral education system: compulsory primary education for the masses and secondary and higher education for the elite. The School Ordinance of 1872 imposed a four-year system of compulsory primary education (extended to six years in 1907) for all children between the ages of 6 and 14 in order to create a “rich county with a strong army” equal to Western countries.

In 1875, 25,000 elementary schools were open throughout the country and 35 per cent of children aged 6-14 (41 per cent of boys and 18 per cent of girls) were enrolled, with an attendance rate of 74 per cent (Tokyo Shoseki 2000: 197; Hamashima Shoten 2000: 128).8 The primary school enrolment rate increased to 49.5% in 1885, 61.2% in 1895, and 98.1% in 1910 (Ko-dansha 1999: 434). Poverty and gender have influenced primary school enrolment rates. In 1918, general enrolment in primary schools finally reached girls and children in the lower urban classes (Okado 2000: 234). [Source: Miki Y. Ishikida, Japanese Education in the 21st Century, usjp.org/jpeducation_en/jp; iUniverse, June 2005~] Japan is a very education-oriented society. Education is valued and academic success is often the prerequisite for success at work and in society as a whole. Text sources: Source: Miki Y. Ishikida, Japanese Education in the 21st Century, usjp.org/jpeducation_en/jp; iUniverse, June 2005 ~; Web Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan; New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, The Guardian, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, NBC News, Fox News and various books and other publications. From the 1910s onwards, the victories of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) strengthened imperial and nationalist ideology. During the “Taisho democracy” of the 1920s, progressive educators advocated child-centered education for middle-class children in urban areas (Okado 2000: 144-5). From the severe economic recession of the late 1920s, ultranationalists and military officers controlled the government. In the 1930s, militarist and ultranationalist ideologies permeated the Japanese education system.

~ At the same time, the academic performance of Japanese students is extremely high compared to international standards. Japanese children consistently rank at or near the top in successive international math tests. The system is characterized by high enrolment and retention rates. An entrance examination system, which is particularly important at university level, has a strong influence on the whole system. The structure does not consist exclusively of formal formal educational institutions funded by the State. Private education is also an important part of the educational landscape, and the role of schools outside the formal school system cannot be ignored. In the late 1980s, the vast majority of new teachers entered the profession with a bachelor`s degree, although about 25% of all elementary teachers did not have a bachelor`s degree. The program for future undergraduate teachers included the study of pedagogy as well as concentration in academic fields.

Most new teachers study a subject other than education, and graduates of teacher training colleges are still in the minority. After graduation, a teacher had to pass a prefectural exam to obtain a license issued by a prefectural authority.